Glossary of marketing terms

By May 25, 2019

The Marketing Compass 8 compass pointsHere is a glossary of marketing terms, which includes marketing tips.

See also our Glossary of copywriting terms and Glossary of SEO terms as well as Pricing strategy.

Researched and written by marketing consultant, trainer and author Nigel Temple.

  1. A/B split testing: Research regarding two versions of a product, service, advertisement, headline, web page etc whereby a consumer, buyer or website visitor is shown one version and their subsequent behaviour is tracked and measured.
  2. ABC1: A way of classifying consumers, created in the 1960s. Occupation is the key factor in determining social grade, which means IMHO that this system is outdated and of limited use within a 21st society. ABC1 = the middle classes.  See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NRS_social_grade
  3. Abandonment rate (e-commerce): The ratio of abandoned shopping carts to the number of completed (or initiated) transactions. Typically about 70%.
  4. Above the fold: The top part of a web page that is visible without scrolling down.
  5. Above the line: Advertising and other forms of mass media promotion.
  6. Account: A client who buys regularly. They are usually given some form of credit.
  7. Account director: The person within a marketing agency that looks after one or more clients.
  8. Ad blocking (Internet marketing): Internet software that blocks pop-up adverts within web pages.
  9. Ad clicks (Internet marketing): The number of clicks on an internet advertising banner.
  10. Added value: A marketing strategy to increase the attractiveness of your product / service. (Tip: continually seek to add value)
  11. Advertising campaign: Advertisements and associated materials deployed at the same time as part of a structured promotional initiative. See: http://www.marketingcompass.co.uk/glossary-of-copywriting-terms
  12. Advertorial: Paid for advertising space which looks (at first glance), like editorial i.e. written by a journalist. Advertorials should be marked clearly with the word ‘Advertisement’.
  13. Affiliate marketing (Internet marketing): An internet marketing strategy, whereby a website owner is paid for promoting another website. For example, a banner advert on your site leads to another website. If someone clicks on the banner and buys something from the other website, you receive payment. Payment can be decided by clicks, registrations or sales. For example, The Marketing Compass offers 50% commission via an affiliate marketing programme: http://www.marketingcompass.co.uk/business-opportunity/
  14. After market:  Repair, replacement parts and additional products and services added post sale. For example, incredibly loud stereo systems with deep, thundering bass, retro fitted to old Fords which always follow me around town.
  15. AIDCA: (Sometimes known as AIDA). A marketing system commonly used in direct response copywriting: A = Attention (the headline). I = Interest (the product / service). D = Desire (an offer). C = Conviction (social proof, i.e. testimonials). A = Action (a call to action).
  16. Ambient media: Advertising which is placed appears within everyday life. For example, advertising on ticket barriers and petrol pumps.
  17. Anchor text (Internet marketing): The text within a hyperlink. For a full description and an example see: SEO glossary of terms
  18. API (Internet marketing): Application Programming Interface. An API allows one application (such as an ESP) to communicate (or ‘talk’) to another application, such as an e-commerce system (i.e. Magento).
  19. App: An abbreviation of mobile application. App software can be downloaded to a smartphone or tablet computer. They can provide entertainment (i.e games), information (i.e. medical) or interaction with a website (i.e. the LinkedIn app).
  20. B2B: Business to Business, i.e. one business is marketing to another business. An example would be a management training company.
  21. B2C: Business to Consumer. i.e. a high street retailer.
  22. Backlinks (SEO): Inbound links to a page on your website. See: SEO glossary of terms
  23. Banner adverts (Internet marketing): Sometimes called web banners. Advertisements which appear within websites which click through to the advertisers website, squeeze page or other online resource. They can be placed manually by the website owner, or delivered via an ad server (which is how corporate online banner advertising campaigns work – this is all sorted out by an digital advertising agency). There are numerous forms of payment on offer, including a flat rate for a period of time, click through rate,advert impressions, and payment upon sale. If you search for ‘ad networks’ if you are interested in this type of thing (however, be careful, because there are some dodgy outfits out there). Also see ‘Google AdSense’ within this glossary of marketing terms.
  24. Below the line: Direct forms of marketing communication. Includes unconventional forms of promotion, i.e. social media.
  25. Big Data: A large and complex collection of data sets. See: http://www.nigeltemple.com/2014/10/13/what-is-big-data-and-what-are-the-marketing-implications-2/
  26. Bitly (Internet marketing):  https://bitly.com is a popular URL shortening service (so that you can share long URLs via the social media, for example). Another example is: http://goo.gl
  27. Bleed (Advertising): Where a full colour press advertisement (or leaflet), which includes an image, runs to the edge of the page. Technically, the image runs into the zone outside of the trim area (so the ‘bleed’ is the part that is trimmed off).
  28. Blog: (Social media): Contraction of ‘web log’. A blog is an online journal. It is chronological, so the most recent entry appears first. Blogging can help with your SEO results. My favourite blog platform is WordPress, which I use for my blog:  www.nigeltemple.com/blog
  29. Body copy (Copywriting): The main body of text within a marketing piece. For example, an advert has a headline, body copy and call to action. See: http://www.marketingcompass.co.uk/glossary-of-copywriting-terms
  30. BOGOF: Buy One Get One Free. A promotional device to increase sales, whereby if an item is bought, another identical product is given for free. Can be used to increase first time purchases of a new brand / product, increase customer numbers and turnover.
  31. Bounce (Email marketing): A bounce is where an email is rejected by the email server. A hard bounce indicates an email address is no longer in use (i.e. a member of staff has left the company or someone has changed their email provider). A soft bounce indicates temporary unavailability, i.e. email inbox is full.
  32. Bounce rate (Internet marketing): The percentage of visitors to a website who navigate away from the site, after viewing only one page (usually the homepage).
  33. Boutique advertising agency: A small, usually independent, creative agency.
  34. Brand: A set of attributes which make it easy for customers to identify your product / service. Includes visual brand identity (i.e. logo, colours, typeface), as well as psychological factors including emotional brand attachments. Having a brand can make your enterprise / products more memorable. It can help to differentiate you and can enable you to charge more.
  35. Brand equity: What a brand is worth, in financial terms. If you have promoted your brand effectively and if a significant number of people can recall your brand name, you may be surprised by how much it is worth.
  36. Budget, marketing: The planned amount of money that an enterprise will pay for promotional activities and associated costs over a period of time. The marketing budget is typically set for a financial year and it is then broken down into monthly periods. IMHO every business, no matter what size, should have a marketing budget (after all, you are spending money on something, marketing wise, aren’t you?)
  37. Business model: A theoretical construct of how your business operates. With regards to marketing, important aspects include the division between real world and digital promotion and whether you deliver any functionality digitally.
  38. Call to action:  See: http://www.marketingcompass.co.uk/glossary-of-copywriting-terms
  39. Case study (Copywriting): A story describing a problem which a consumer or business was facing and how you helped them to solve it.
  40. Channel marketing: Using distributors to bring your products to the marketplace.
  41. Client: Someone who buys from you more than once. (See ‘Customer’).
  42. Closing (Selling): The art of bringing a sale in by closing the deal, sometimes using a closing technique such as the alternative close.
  43. Cloud, The: No, not that fluffy thing up in the sky. ‘The Cloud’ often refers to the internet in general. Strictly speaking, it refers to where you store data and use software applications that are not on your own computer. Whereas you used to get a CD or DVD, install it on your PC in the office, now you can go onto the internet and just start using software there. This means you’ll always be using the latest version of the software and will only be paying for what you use. Or at least that’s the theory! If you have good access to the Internet, this can be pretty convenient. You should be mindful of the security of your data and check backup policies / procedures, especially if the data is crucial to your business. Source: Jacqui Hogan via http://www.marketingcompass.co.uk/2015/05/unravelling-it-jargon
  44. CMS (Internet marketing): Content Management System. This software allows you to make changes to your website. Examples include WordPress, Drupal and Joomla.
  45. Cookie (Internet marketing): Something that is both helpful and annoying! A cookie is a small data file stored on your computer by a website, in theory to allow it to ‘remember’ your preferences, but in practice mostly used to track which adverts you have seen. You can set your browser to reject cookies, but this can generate multiple error messages on some websites and is generally more hassle than it’s worth, as cookies are pretty harmless. If you work in a very secure area, your organisation will probably have a policy about cookies. Source: Jacqui Hogan via http://www.marketingcompass.co.uk/2015/05/unravelling-it-jargon
  46. Competition, The: Enterprises which compete for a share of any given market.
  47. Competitions: A way of building a contact list, usually with B2C marketing (covered by various forms of consumer legislation).
  48. Content marketing (Internet marketing): Planning what you are going to be writing about, in a structured way. Usually based around a content marketing calendar.
  49. Conversion (Internet marketing): Within Google Analytics, a conversion (or ‘goal conversion’) is the completion of an activity on your website. i.e. a customer subscribes to your email newsletter (a Goal conversion) or they make a purchase (AKA transaction, e-commerce conversion). See also ‘Goal’.
  50. Copy (Copywriting): The words written for an advertisement or other form of marketing collateral. See: http://www.marketingcompass.co.uk/glossary-of-copywriting-terms
  51. Copyright: The use of the © symbol signifies that an enterprise owns the rights to the associated material. Used to define Intellectual Property.
  52. Copywriting: Marketing words, i.e. within advertisements, hence ‘body copy’. (I worked for three years as a professional copywriter, in my late 20s. I can remember my boss looking at something I had written and saying: “Well, I like the font and the paper you have printed this on. Now let’s talk about the words you have written.”) See: http://www.marketingcompass.co.uk/glossary-of-copywriting-terms
  53. Corporate: A large enterprise (usually either a Limited company or a PLC). Selling to corporates is different from selling to SMEs, isn’t it?
  54. Corporate colours: The colours that an enterprise uses within its visual brand identity.
  55. Cost plus pricing: A pricing strategy whereby an enterprise works out its production costs and adds a fixed percentage markup (i.e. 20%) to give the selling price. Often used by manufacturing companies and governments within tendering processes.
  56. CPC (Internet marketing): Cost Per Click. This is the price that you pay each time someone clicks on your online advertisement (i.e. via Google AdWords).
  57. CRM: Customer Relationship Management system. There are numerous software solutions available. The idea is to have all of your contacts and customers in one place, as this will give you a strategic advantage. Check that you can export your contacts easily, should you decide to change CRM systems in the future.
  58. CSS (Internet marketing): Cascading Style Sheets or CSS, are becoming the method of choice for doing much of the formatting work that used to be done by HTML e.g. fonts, size, layout etc. The advantage of using CSS is that you can set these up once for your whole website instead of having to write HTML for every page.
  59. CSV: Comma Separated Values. A .csv file can be used to transfer contacts from one place to another (i.e. a database to an ESP).
  60. Cause marketing: This is where an enterprise aligns with a charitable or not-for-profit organisation, possibly for PR purposes or to boost staff morale, although it may be done for philanthropic / non commercial reasons.
  61. Customer: Someone who buys from you once, which makes this transaction based. (See ‘client’).
  62. Dashboard: Software for monitoring website analytics, social media activity, email marketing performance,  sales performance, customer behaviour or any other aspect of sales and marketing.
  63. Data mining: Analysing large quantities of data in order to find patterns, trends and other useful information.
  64. Database: A software program which holds customer information, i.e. names and addresses. Not as good as a CRM.
  65. Decision maker (Selling): The person who has the authority to give the go ahead for a sale / order. Can be difficult to determine within larger organisations.
  66. Deduping: The process of removing duplicate email addresses from a list or database.
  67. Demographics: A somewhat old fashioned way of segmenting customers using gender, age, socio economic group and geographical location. (The challenge being that this only gives you a crude interpretation of a customer’s characteristics).
  68. Description Tag (SEO): Part of your website’s meta data. 155 character’s worth of description of a web page’s content.
  69. Differentiation: The key point or collection of points which makes your business stand out from the crowd. (Well worth thinking about).
  70. Domain name (Internet marketing): A website address. For example www.bbc.co.uk is the domain name for the BBC website. The TLD (Top Level Domain) element for the BBC = “co” (which stands for ‘company’).
  71. Double opt-in (Email marketing): New newsletter subscribers receive an email from you. They are invited to click on a link, in order to confirm that they really want to receive your emails. This process ensures that subscribers are using their own email addresses in your opt-in box.
  72. ESP (Email marketing): An Email Service Provider (i.e. Constant Contact or MailChimp) that provides bulk email services.
  73. e-shot (Email marketing):  An email which is trying to sell something. (It’s usually OK to send an occasional e-shot to subscribers of your newsletter list).
  74. ezine or e-newsletter (Email marketing): An email magazine or email based newsletter.
  75. Facebook (Social media):  The world’s largest social media website, which makes it difficult to ignore. Particularly relevant to B2C marketers.
  76. Freemium pricing: This is not just a pricing option – it is virtually a business model in its own right. The idea is to promote a free version of a product or service, with the objective of converting a proportion of the users into paying customers. Examples include LinkedIn and vast numbers of software products. Variants include ‘free for a month’ and ‘free forever’.
  77. Gatekeeper (Selling): Someone who controls access to a decision maker (within B2B sales and marketing).
  78. Goal (Internet marketing): A Google Analytics term for a pre-determined outcome which you wish to achieve, i.e. a website visitor arrives at a specific URL.
  79. Google AdSense (Internet marketing): This is a way of earning some money by having relevant advertisements appearing within your website, which are served up by Google. You can join AdSense for free – the advertiser pays Google (i.e. when someone clicks on their ad).
  80. Google AdWords (Internet marketing): When you search for something within Google, adverts may appear at the top of the page and within the right hand column. The adverts can also appear towards the right hand side of the screen if you use Gmail. Advertisers pay for this service and are charged when someone clicks on their ad.
  81. Google Analytics (Internet marketing):  A free to use service which gives a website owner a considerable amount of information about website traffic, where visitors are coming from, which pages they are looking at etc.
  82. Guarantee: A promise of satisfaction made to the customer.
  83. Hashtags (Social media): Within Twitter, you can use hashtags # in order to highlight keywords. For example, if you wrote: #Oxford …within Twitter, it would appear in blue and this word would become a clickable item – which allows Twitter users to click on that word and see recent Tweets which contain the same word. The use of hashtags enables Twitter users to find other Tweeters who are interested in specific issues / topics / products / people / locations etc.
  84. Hexadecimal codes (Internet marketing): A system of codes for producing colour on a screen.  FFFFFF = white, for example.
    See: http://www.w3schools.com/tags/ref_colorpicker.asp
  85. HTML (Internet marketing): HyperText Markup Language – the computer language used to build (most) web pages. Sections of code are ‘marked up’, using angle brackets (in pairs). This is used to tell an internet browser how to display information on the page, i.e start bold / end bold, or start headline / end headline, or ‘insert an image here’. If we wrote the following in HTML: <b>Nigel</b>  …b = ‘bold’ …and…  /b = end bold  …therefore, it would appear on the web page as:  Nigel   It is important to have a conceptual understanding of HTML, if you are going to be an effective internet marketer, as this knowledge will help you in countless situations. An excellent resource for gaining this knowledge is W3 Schools: www.w3schools.com
  86. Impressions (Internet marketing): The number of times that an online advertisement or other item is downloaded and, the advertiser hopes, actually seen.
  87. Infographics (Social media): Images which tell a story about a given subject. Usually upright rectangular images. Popular within Pinterest. Wherever possible, associate a URL with your infographics, so that people can click back to your website.
  88. Intellectual Property (IP): Creations of the mind. Includes inventions, designs and products. It is a good idea to protect your IP.
  89. Keywords (SEO): Words or phrases which people search for (i.e. within Google, Yahoo or Bing). As part of your SEO strategy, it is a good idea to have a list of keywords and phrases which appear within your website’s content and meta data, in order to attract the search engines. See: http://www.marketingcompass.co.uk/glossary-of-seo-terms
  90. Landing page (Internet marketing): A webpage that has a commercial intent, i.e. newsletter signup, event registration, sales lead generation or sale.  Tip: online advertisements work better when they link to a landing page.
  91. Market segment: A market segment = a group of people with shared needs.
  92. Market based pricing: An analysis of competitive pricing leads to a price point for a given product or service. This may be lower, the same or higher than the competition – depending on the marketing strategy (i.e. differentiation and positioning).
  93. Meta Data (SEO): Within websites, this refers to information held within the Header section of a web page, which helps search engines to decide what that page is about. Meta Data includes the Title Tag and Description Tag.  See: http://www.marketingcompass.co.uk/glossary-of-seo-terms
  94. Metrics: A series of numbers (or charts) which show the performance of a marketing initiative or campaign. For example an advertising, email marketing, or SEO campaign. The advent of digital marketing has given marketers a wealth of real time metrics.
  95. Mind Mapping (Creative thinking): A graphical thought organisation technique, useful during planning, presentations and talks.
  96. Objections (Selling): Reasons that a seller gives for not buying your product / service. If there are no objections, there will be no sale, so don’t think of them as a problem.
  97. Open Source (Internet marketing): With the rise of the Internet, came the ability to share the development of software. For many people, collaboration became the norm rather than the exception, creating questions about who owned the source code and the software products created. Many believed that this collaborative development of software should belong to everyone and the Open Source movement began. The main principle is that this code is freely available to anyone. Probably the best know is Linux, an alternative operating system widely available on PCs and Servers.
  98. Opt-in (Email marketing): When a new subscriber chooses to join your list. Seth Godin coined the term ‘Permission marketing’ which means that people want to subscribe to your marketing communications.
  99. Opt-out / unsubscribe (Email marketing):  An easy way for people to leave your newsletter list, i.e. via ‘a single click and I am unsubscribed’ link.
  100. Organic search results (SEO): A term used within digital marketing to distinguish between paid for and ‘natural’ search engine results (which appear within SERPs pages).
  101. Ps (The four): Product, Price, Place and Promotion. AKA ‘Marketing-mix’ coined by Neil Borden in 1953. See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marketing_mix
  102. Packaging: If you have a physical product, it is important to have professional packaging which reflects your brand.
  103. Pantone Matching System: A proprietary colour matching system used to specify inks within the printing process. Hint: if you know your Pantone references you can convert them into Hexadecimal codes for use within your website.
  104. Pinterest (Social media): A social media website which allows you to share and tag images. Particularly useful if you use infographics as part of your digital marketing strategy.
  105. Pop-up adverts (Internet marketing): Advertisements that appear in front of the content of a web page.
  106. Positioning: How you decide to position yourself in your market, i.e. ‘cheap as chips’ versus ‘reassuringly expensive’.
  107. Positive attitude: Something which is useful to have, during the ups and downs of sales and marketing. 🙂
  108. PPC (Internet marketing): Pay Per Click advertising. The advertiser only pays when someone clicks on their online advertisement (i.e. via Google AdWords).
  109. PR: Press Relations, which is the art of trying to get journalists to write about your products / services. (I prefer to use the term ‘Media Relations’, which includes digital media, such as blogs).
  110. Press release: A single story that you send to many different media, with the hope of publication.
  111. Pricing: This is a key element of your marketing strategy. Low price should generate more demand, whilst a high price sends a signal of higher quality. Where you position your enterprise, products and services with regards to price is a critical question. Two options ‘cost plus’ and ‘market based pricing’ (see separate entries).
  112. Promotional technique: A specific way of promoting a product or service, i.e. a website is a promotional technique. SEO and blogging are separate techniques.
  113. Promotional mix: All of the ways in which you promote your business, i.e. website, advertisements, networking, SEO, social media.
  114. Referring domains:(Internet marketing): See ‘Backlinks’.
  115. RSS (Social media): Really Simple Syndication. An RSS (‘Feed’) enables people to follow your blog.
  116. Sales pipeline (Selling): Identification of where prospective customers are during the sales journey.
  117. Segment:  See ‘market segment’.
  118. SEM (Internet marketing): Search Engine Marketing. The art and science of improving a website’s search engine results, by improving the use of keywords, meta data and website content. May also include paid for advertising.
  119. SEO: Search Engine Optimisation. The science (and art) of attracting the search engines to your website. See ‘keywords’.
  120. SERPs (SEO): Search Engine Results Pages. This is the list of website pages which appear when you use a search engine. Within Google, there are 10 results per page.
  121. SMO (Social media): Social Media Optimisation is the strategic use of social media for business purposes, i.e. attracting visitors to your website. See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_media_optimization
  122. Squeeze page (Internet marketing): A web page (or website which usually only comprises a single page) which has the sole objective of tempting visitors to ‘join your list’, i.e. your newsletter list.
  123. SWOT: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats. You can conduct a SWOT analysis on your enterprise, or on a competitor.
  124. Symbol store (Retailing): A UK term for an independent shop (i.e. a grocer or small supermarket) that trades under the banner (symbol) of a recognised brand i.e. SPAR. They are supplied by a symbol group (effectively a wholesaler). (Nigel says: I wonder whether other small businesses could do this, within other sectors? Bearing in mind that symbol stores are not franchisees).  See: http://www.igd.com/Research/Retail/Convenience/3381/Symbol-Groups—Market-Overview
  125. Testimonials: A short statement endorsing your business, brand, service or product – written by a genuine customer (not you).
  126. Testing: See A/B split testing.
  127. Theme (Internet marketing and Email marketing): Pre-designed ‘look and feel (or ‘skin’) for your website or newsletter.
  128. Title Tag (SEO): Part of your website’s meta data. Title Tags appear with SERP pages and look like headlines.  See: http://www.marketingcompass.co.uk/glossary-of-seo-terms
  129. Transactional email:(Email marketing and e-commerce): An email which is triggered by an event, i.e. e-commerce order confirmation, cart abandonment, password resets, support requests, thank you notes. Also known as action based emails, automatic emails, autoresponders, real-time emails, triggered emails.
  130. Trigger or Event: (Internet marketing and Email marketing): The catalyst that triggers a marketing automation event workflow, i.e. joining your newsletter list. (Trigger was also a character in Only Fools and Horses).
  131. Twitter (Social media): A social media website. Tell the world about your business in 140 characters or less.
  132. UA code (Internet marketing):  A short string of characters that are included within a web page so that it can be tracked by Google Analytics. If you use a CMS such as WordPress, your UA code only has to be entered within WordPress once and then it is automatically added to new pages.
  133. URL (Internet marketing): Uniform Resource Locator or, more simply, a website page address. For example: www.bbc.co.uk It is important to think in terms of page addresses, as the search engines list URLs within their giant indexes of the web. Keywords and phrases are then associated with specific URLs.
  134. USP (Copywriting): Unique Selling Proposition – something you have which the competition doesn’t. This term was originally coined by American advertising executive and guru, Rosser Reeves.
  135. Value: The perceived value that you deliver to your customer, which includes price but also includes such factors as service and peace of mind.
  136. Vertical market: A vertically integrated market, i.e. the automotive industry which starts with steel and ends with a car on the dealership forecourt.
  137. Viral marketing (Internet marketing): Every digital marketer’s dream. “Going viral” means that your content is shared by vast numbers of people via the social media. The upshot can be massive brand brand awareness and so many website hits that your site falls over. AKA as ‘marketing buzz’.
  138. Visitor: (Internet marketing): A ‘unique visitor’ (UV) to your website is identified by their IP (Internet Protocol) address. In a period of one month, let’s say that person Y visits in the first week and person Z visits in the second week. The website in question has two unique visitors. However, if person Y visits again in the third week, the site still only has two UVs. A high number of UVs is a good indication of a website’s popularity.
  139. YouTube (Social media): The world’s second most popular search engine, after Google. If you want to see how to do something (i.e. remove a radiator from a wall), there is probably a YouTube video which will show you how. Increasingly popular with the non-teen (older) market. My advice is to have a YouTube channel and tag your videos (just like you would a website page).

Source for CSS, The Cloud, Cookie and Open Source Jacqui Hogan via http://www.marketingcompass.co.uk/2015/05/unravelling-it-jargon


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